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Full text of "The Greenleaf collection: textile arts from the 16th to the early 19th century"

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THE GREENLEAF COLLECTION 

Textile Arts 

FROM THE 16th TO THE EARLY 19th CENTURY 
BEQUEST OF THE LATE RICHARD CRANCH GREENLEAF 

M 

746 

Z"*''^^ ^f^ January, 1964: 

PAM/CJ 



THE GREENLEAF COLLECTION 



Chm 




THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE at SEVENTH STREET 
NEW YORK 3,N.Y. 

^^39198 






RiCH.\RD Cranch Greenleaf was tlie voungest 
child of Dr. Richard Cranch and AdeHne Emma 
(Stone) Greenleaf of Lenox, Mass. He was born 
in Berlin, Germany, in 1887. His boyhood was 
spent in Lenox, his education was by tutors ex- 
cept for one term at Middlesex School, and he 
never attended college. 

At an early age he exhibited a talent for 
drawing and painting and was generally seen 
with a pad and pencil in hand. About 1905 he 
went to Paris and studied in the Atelier Julien. 
French art proved to be his love and he was pro- 
foimdly influenced by the work of Fragonard. 
After a few years abroad he returned to Lenox. 

Jim, as Richard was always called, continued to paint and draw and study the 
books he had collected. In 1912 his father became seriously ill and in 1914 he died. 
Jim and his mother moved to Paris and were there when the First World War 
broke out. When tlie United States entered the war they hastily returned home 
and shortly afterwards Jim entered the Engineers Corps, Department of Camou- 
flage, and was stationed in Syracuse, N. Y. Shortly after the war they returned 
to France. 

They pm'chased a pictm'esque house in Barbizon and Jim continued building 
up his coUections. With his gi^eat interest in lace, he became one of the founders of 




the Needle and Bobbin Club and the first editor of its bulletin. He kept in touch 
with agents who might have information about important pieces of lace or textiles. 
Jim bought wisely and with great taste. 

In 1936 Mrs. Greenleaf died in Barbizon and Jim decided to stay on there. 
In the Second World War German troops overran Barbizon, fortunately respecting 
his home. However, just before Pearl Harbor he decided to return to New York. 
He packed the bulk of his collection in various containers and he and his servant 
and friend, George Marois, took them to George's family farm. There they were 
stored in hay lofts, pig pens and other unlikely places. (When he returned after 
the war he found them untouched and unharmed in spite of the fact that both 
German and Allied armies had rolled through tire district). He stuffed his most 
prized pieces of lace into a small wad and made it look like a pin cushion and then, 
with considerable difficulty, made his way home via Lisbon. 

In New York he took up his bachelor existence at 277 Park Ave. He worked 
with the Salvation Army at one of their canteens during the remainder of the war 
and shortly thereafter returned to Barbizon, sold his house and gathered together 
his collections. He decorated his apartment with the framed laces, the tassels were 
displayed in a case, the textiles and waistcoats were kept in a specially constructed 
cabinet. He delighted in showing them to members of his family and his close 
friends, one of whom was Miss Frances Morris, curator of textiles and lace at the 
Metropolitan Museum. 

The news of the pending sale and demolition of 277 Park Ave. in 1958 caused 
Jim to search for a new apartment. This move together with failing health made 
him become more or less a recluse. He was a person of unvarying habits. He 
seldom went out except for luncheon and to the meetings of the Advisory Council 
of the Cooper Union Museum. On the last day of 1961, at the age of seventy-four, 
he died in Roosevelt Hospital. 

— Lewis G. Adams 



Mr. Adams, an architect and resident of New York, is a nephew of the late Richard Cranch Greenleaf. 





PREVIOUS COLLECTIONS 






Key to bracketed letter symbols following accession 






numbers used in catalogue listing 




AU 


Dupont-Auberville 


LA Sir William Lawrence 




BE 


Besselievre 


LF Lefebure 




BL 


Blackborne 


M Tony Martel 




BO 


Bondi 


MA Queen Marie Antoinette 




C 


Camerino 


MO Frances Morris 




CL 


Pope Clement XIII 


P Mme. Jules Forges 
R Rio-aud 




G 


Prince Gagarine 




HA 


Marian Hague 
Henri Lavedan 






HL 


S Georges Saville Seligman 




IK 


Ikle 


SC Mary Schenck 




JJR 


Jean Jacques Reubel 


SF Ida Schiff 




K 


Baroness Kisch 


V Countess Valencia de Don 


Juan 


L 


Lescure 


W Prince de Wagram 





Men^s Costume 



I 



N THE LIGHT of today's Comparative restraint in dress for men, a first glance at 
the suits of silk and velvet, the waistcoats elaborately embroidered or brocaded, 
the laces to adorn throat or wrist, will carry with it for a moment a sense of 
masquerade. But the world of the i8th century loved fine design and skillful 
ornament; it was, as well, heir to a high tradition in fine weaving and embroidery. 
Without hesitation then, these arts were lavished, when the wearer could afford 
it, upon his clotliing. In such a collection as this, fortimately preserved for today's 
study and enjoyment, we may observe a wide range of design styles, of variety 
in techniques in the embroideries and of most expert production of beautiful 
materials upon the hand loom. 



Man's Coat and Waistcoat; flame colored 
tafi^eta, trimmed with cording and tassels of 
same color. Probably England, first half of 
i8th century. The suit was the property 
of the Hon. William Greenleaf, 1725-1803, 
of Boston, the great-great-grandfather of 
Richard Cranch Greenleaf. 

1 ACC. no. 1962-54-60 A AND B 

Coat, Waistcoat and Breeches; Coat and 
Breeches — fawn colored sti'iped velvet with 
small lattice design in green and pink; em- 
broidered with silver, sequins and tinsel, the 
pattern in the style of Jean Frangois Bony; 
Waistcoat — white satin embroidered in sil- 
ver in similar pattern. France, second half 
of 18th century. 

2 ACC. NO. 1962-54-58 A, B, c 



Other examples of coats and waist- 
coats, or of coats for men, of the 18th 
century will be found under the acces- 
sion numbers, 1962-54-59, -61, -62, -63. 
3-6 



Waistcoat, incomplete, formerly with 
sleeves; white hnen with broad borders of 
embroidery and drawn work in white, pocket 
flaps and cuffs separate. England, first quar- 
ter of 18th century. 

7 ACC NO. 1962-54-65 a, b, c, d, e, f 

Waistcoat, white silk heavily embroidered 
in relief, in gold and silver; elaborate pat- 
tern of foliage, pomegranates and styHzed 
flowers. France, first half of 18th century. 

8 ACC. NO. 1962-54-1 



7 



Waistcoat, pink watered silk embroidered 
in gold thread and sequins; rococo floral 
borders, braid trimmed button holes. France 
or Italy, mid-i8th century. 

9 ACC. NO. 1962-54-3 A AND B 

Waistcoat, cream white silk brocaded in 
colored silks and gold; elaborate foliage and 
floral pattern. France, first half of 18th 
century. 

10 ACC. NO. 1962-54-4 

Waistcoat, yellow satin embroidered with 
polychrome silk, chenille and silver; elabo- 
rate border pattern of fruits and flowers. 
France, first half of 18th century. 

1 1 ACQ. NO. 1962-54-5 A AND B 

Waistcoat, blue satin with wide floral bor- 
ders embroidered in blue silk. England or 
France, mid- 18th century. 

12 ACC. NO. 1962-54-7 

Another waistcoat of the earhj 18th 
century may he found under accession 
number 1962-54-10. 



Waistcoat, white taffeta painted and printed 

in colors; all-over trellis pattern and border 

of roses. France, second half of 18th century. 

■"4 acc. NO. 1962-54-11 

Waistcoat, cloth of silver, embroidered in 

gold, tinsel and glass; delicate scrollwork 

borders. France, second half of 18th century. 

15 Acc. NO. 1962-54-8 

Waistcoat, white satin embroidered with 
polychrome silk, metal thread and sequins; 
detail of small sailing vessels, one firing at a 
tower, border of drums and .flags. France, 
second half of 18th century. 
IS ACC NO. 1962-54-29 

Waistcoat, cream white ribbed silk em- 
broidered in polychrome silks; borders of 
floral garlands. England, second half of 18th 
century. 
■•7 ACc. NO. 1962-54-21 

Waistcoat, cream white satin embroidered 
in polychrome silks, with decoration of bril- 
liants, sequins and metal thread; detail of 



small sailing vessels. France, second half of 
18th century. 

18 ACC. NO. 1962-54-25 A AND B [S] 

Other waistcoats of similar materials 
and styles, of the middle to second half 
of the 18th century may be found 
under accession numbers 1962-54-6A 
and B, -g, -22, -23 A and B, -24, -26, 
-27, -28, -41, and -54. 

19-28 

Waistcoat, white satin embroidered in 
polychrome silks; border design of conven- 
tionalized flowers in the manner of Jean 
Frangois Bony. France, late 18th century. 
29 acc NO. 1962-54-20 [S] 

Waistcoat, white satin embroidered with 
polychrome silks and chenille, with pattern 
on breast of applied silk and embroidered 
leaves. France, late 18th century. 
39 ACC NO. 1962-54-34 

Waistcoat, white satin, double-breasted, 
embroidered in polychrome silks and che- 
nille; applied black silk medallions, em- 
broidered in flower sprays. France, late 
i8th-early 19th century. 

31 ACC NO. 1962-54-35 [HL] 

Waistcoat, white satin embroidered in poly- 
chrome silk; boy with turkey, floral border. 
France, late 18th century. 

32 ACC NO. 1962-54-45 a and B 

Waistcoat, white taflreta embroidered in 
polychrome silks; figures of Dido and Aeneas, 
from the opera by Piccini and Marmontel, 
produced in 1785. The figure of Dido is from 
a drawing by Moreau-le-Jeune for the cos- 
tume worn by Mile, de Saint-Huberty in that 
opera. France, late 18th century. 

33 ACC NO. 1962-54-47 [S] 

Waistcoat, cream white satin embroidered 
in polychrome silks; design of wine makers' 
festival, floral border and wine casks. France, 
late 18th century. 

34 ACC NO. 1962-54-48 [S] 

Waistcoat, green taffeta, embroidered in 
polychrome silks; river god reclining among 
reeds. France or Italy, late 18th century. 

35 ACC NO. 1962-54-55 [S] 



Waistcoat, brown silk embroidered in 
colored silks; chinoiserie figures in fantastic 
boat. France, late iSth century. 
36 Acc. NO. 1962-54-56 

Otlier embroidered waistcoats of the 
late 18th century may be found under 
accession numbers 1Q62-54 -36, -38, 
-39, -40, -42, -43 and -46. 

37-43 

W.4ISTC0AT, incomplete, white satin em- 
broidered with polychrome silks; monkeys 
playing musical instruments, palm trees, and 
floral border. France, or England, late 18th 
century. 

44 AGO. NO. 1962-54-31 [S] 

Waistcoat, incomplete, white satin em- 
broidered in polychrome silks; boar hunt, 
foliage, floral borders. France, late 18th 
century. 

45 ACC. NO. 1962-54-32 A AND B 

Waistcoat Fbont, white taffeta embroi- 
dered in polychrome silks and chenille; 
lizard, snail, butterflies, with border of flower 
sprays. France, late 18th century. 

46 ACC NO. 1962-54-44 [S] 

Waistcoat, incomplete, embroidered in 
polychrome silks; cockfight with border de- 
sign of flowers. France or England, late 
18th century. 

47 ACC. NO. 1962-54-50 a and b [S] 

Waistcoat, incomplete, black wool em- 
broidered in polychrome silks; Liberty pole 
with flags and Phrygian bonnet, man firing 
cannon. France, about 1790-1792. 

48 Acc. NO. 1962-54-57 [S] 

Similar incomplete embroidered waist- 
coats may be found under accession 
numbers 1962-54-30, -33, -37, and -64. 
49-52 

Waistcoat, green silk twill with woven de- 
sign in white and red; women in trees picking 
fruit, assisted by abbes, borders with figures 
and festoons. Southern France, late 18th 
century. 
53 ACC. NO. 1962-54-15 

Waistcoat, dark green silk, with design 
woven in blue and white; triumph of Cupid, 



foliage borders. Southern France, late 18th 
century. 

54 Acc. NO. 1962-54-14 

Waistcoat, dark grey-blue satin, the design 
woven in colors; dancing figures under a 
trelHs. Southern France, late 18th century. 

55 ACC. NO. 1962-54-13 [S] 

Waistcoat, silk velvet, "velours miniatures," 
in black and pink; pattern in horizontal 
stripes shows a stag-hunt. France, Lyon, 
late 18th century. 

56 ACC. NO. 1962-54-12 [S] 

Another waistcoat of woven silk, of the 
late 18th century may be found under 
accession number 2962-54-49. 
57 

Waistco.^t, incomplete, white ribbed cotton, 
plate-printed in green; cupids dancing before 
Father Time, border of foliage, fruit and 
storks. Italv, late 18th century. 

58 ACC. NO. 1962-54-17 

Waistcoat, incomplete, white cotton, plate- 
printed in purple; dancing nymphs, medal- 
lions and borders in classic revival patterns. 
France, 1800-1805. 

59 ACC. NO. 1962-54-18 a, b, c, d [S] 

Waistcoat, white taffeta embroidered in 
pale colored silks and sequins, applied 
medallions and borders of silk; medallions, 
plate-printed in violet, show nymphs dancing 
before herms with crouching figures at base. 
France or England, late 18th century. 

60 ACC. NO. 1962-54-51 A AND B [S] 

Waistcoat, pale yellow satin, plate-printed 
in black; medalHons framing Narcissus and 
Ariadne, arabesques and grotesques. France, 
1795-1804. 

61 ACC. NO. 1962-54-16 [S] 

Other ivaistcoats with printed designs, 
of the late 18th or early 19th century 
may be found under accession numbers 
1962-54-19 and -52. 
62-63 

Waistcoat, white satin, embroidered in 

polychrome silk, pattern of martial emblems. 

France, early 19th century. 

64 Acc. NO. 1962-54-53 

— A.B.B. 



Lace 

The complicated terminology peculiar to lace is defined in a glossary on page 35. 
All threads are of linen unless otherwise indicated 



A. 



^MONG THE HIGHLY DEVELOPED SKILLS of the hand Craftsman, none was so 
popular in its day as the making of lace. Italy, France and Flanders were the 
centers of lace manufacture dming its great period — from the middle of the 16th 
to the beginning of the 19th century. 

The beauty of lace does not alone rely upon technique, no matter how intricate 
or complex. As in any art form lace depends upon balanced juxtapositions, a certain, 
but controlled amount of repetition, a rhythm which brings together individual 
pai^ts dominating a given area, but in the end subser\'ient to the whole. For design 
motifs much early lace relied on religious themes, but during the late lyih century 
a new spir"it was introduced into lace manufacture which was fmther developed 
thi-oughout the 18th century. Often designed by well known painters, subject 
matter for lace no longer relied exclusively on traditional religious iconography. 

The techniques of making lace are of two kinds, needle and bobbin. These 
subdivide into distinguishable design types, further explained in theii' respective 
sections in the catalogue. 

NEEDLE LACE 

Needle lace, the older of the two categories, is believed to have derived 
from embroidery. The examples of Punto Tagliato listed below are evi- 
dence of this transition. Lace is, however, independent of a solid woven 
construction, essential for any kind of embroidery. 

The technique relies upon the use of a needle, one thread, and a single 
repeated stitch, tlie buttonhole stitch. The lace maker generally works on 
a support of either heavy paper or parchment, upon which the pattern 
has been drawn, which provides body for the lace and makes designs of 
broad outline possible. 



PUNTO TAGLIATO 

A type of cutwork in which portions are 
cut following a given pattern from a 
woven linen ground. The open areas 
which are left are then usually filled with 
needle lace such as Reticello, Punto in 
Aria, or both; often one finds the outlines 
edged with a metallic thread. 

Chalice Cover; Center — rosette enclosed 
by symmetrically placed floral and foliated 
forms; Outer border — pattern of running 
floral and foliated branch. Italy, late i6th- 
early 17th century. 
65 Acc. NO. 1962-50-15 [BO] 

An additional example is Acc. No. 
1362-50-187. 



Border; single band composed of geometi'ic 
motifs in alternating repeat pattern bordered 
by small triangular pendants. Italy, first half 
of 16th century. 

69 Acc. NO. 1962-50-124 

Border; Figure of St. Anthony and Christ 
Child, flanked bv large geometric rosettes, 
interspersed witb floral and foliated forms; 
Upper and lower border — geometric motifs 
in an alternating pattern. Spain, late 16th- 
early 17th century. 

70 Acc. NO. 1962-50-210 

Chalice Cover; Center — woven linen 
square with Reticello insertion and sur- 
rounded by evenly spaced geometi-ic motifs 
in Reticello; Outer border — foliated forms 
and triangular pendants in bobbin lace. 
Italy, 17th century. 

71 ACC. NO. 1962-50-201 



RETICELLO 

Derived from Punto Tagliato [cutwork], 
and Punto Tirato [drawn work], Reticello 
bears characteristics of both, and is the 
earliest distinct needle lace. Areas cut 
away are edged by tight buttonhole 
stitches. Other patterns are opened 
through the drawing of threads. Reticello 
patterns are geometric in appearance, 
reminiscent of gridwork, and often con- 
nected by brides picotees. Frequently 
Reticello is found in combination with 
other lace types or embroidery. 

Border; symmetrically intertwining bands 
forming hexagonal shapes enclosing repre- 
sentations of human figures, lower border 
composed of geometric motifs in alternating 
pattern of Punto in Aria and Punto Quadro. 
Italy, mid- 16th century. 

67 ACC. NO. 1962-50-35 [K] 

Border; geometrically arranged design of 
abstract human and animal forms con- 
tained within square units, bordered on one 
side by a zig-zag band and lesser geometric 
forms. Italy, mid-i6th century. 

68 Acc. NO. 1962-50-125 



Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1362-50-136, -202, -213, -214 [C]. 

72-75 

Examples combining Reticello with 
Punto in Aria or embroidery are ac- 
cession numbers 1362-50-63, -127, 
-131, -133, -185 A and B [MO], -186 
[MO], -188, -189, -191 [MO-SF], -192 
[MO-SF], -207 [C]. 
76-86 



PUNTO IN ARIA 

Punto in Aria is the earliest type of free 
needle lace no longer depending on a 
solid linen foundation. Its pattern is not 
cut or drawn away as in Reticello, but 
worked from a single thread, tightly but- 
tonholed, connected from one part of the 
pattern to another by brides picotees. In 
appearance this type is often character- 
ized by a free non-geometric design. 

Border; three horizontal bands containing 

individual scenes from mythology and 

legend. Spain, late i6th-early 17th century. 

87 Acc. NO. 1962-50-23 [P] 

Border; single band, containing boats and 
mythological sea creatures with attached 



border composed of stvlized heart-shaped 
forms. Spain, late i6th-early 17th century. 

88 Acc. NO. 1962-50-29 [P] 

Chalice Cover; Biblical subject, probably 
Christ at Gethsemane, surrounded by a 
double border of highly stylized floral forms. 
Itah', 17th century. 

89 ACC. NO. 1962-50-20 [C] 

Chalice Cover; Center — medallion con- 
taining initials IHS, surrounded by highly 
stylized floral forms, with an outer border. 
Italy, late i6th-early 17th century. 

90 ACC NO. 1962-50-22 [C] 

Panel; Center — grotesque figure flanked by 
running floral and foliated scrolls inter- 
spersed by putti and animals, bordered by 
small geometric pattern. Italy, 17th century. 

91 ACC NO. 1962-50-72 [P] 

Fragments; alternating arrangements of 
floral and foliated sprays in symmetric pat- 
tern. Italy, late i6th-early 17th century. 

92 ACC. NO. 1962-50-226 A AND B 

Border; double row containing alternate 
squares of embroidered linen cloth and 
insertions of Punto in Aria in geometric 
forms; Lower border — triangular pendants. 
Italy, late i6th-early 17th century. 

93 ACC NO. 1962-50-190 [C] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-21, -82, -123, -193 [MO- 
SFJ, 194 [MO-SF], -195 [MO-SF], 
-196, -197, -200 [C], -203 [SC], -204, 
-205, -208, -2og [C], -211, -212, -21$ 
[MO], -216, -217 [C], -218 [C], -219 
[C], -220 [MO], -221 [C], -224 [IK], 
-227 A and B [C], -257 [MO], -259, 
-320 A-D [BE]. 
94-124 



Believed to have originated in Burano, 
this type of lace is characterized by 
closely patterned design. 

Chalice Cover; Center — figure of a bishop, 
surrounded by floral scrolls terminating in 
angel heads at each of the four corners; 



Border — stylized floral forms. Italy, Burano, 
17th century. 
125 ACC NO. 1962-50-32 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-223 and -256. 

126-127 



GROS POINT DE VENISE 

The main characteristic of Gros Point de 
Venise is a high relief, achieved by out- 
lining the pattern with cordonnet and 
working over this same heavy thread with 
tight buttonhole stitches, upon which a 
further decoration of picotees is placed. 
The toiles, or solid areas of the pattern, 
are interrupted by gaze qiiadrillee and 
partes. The pattern from one part to 
another is connected by brides picotees. 
In appearance, Gros Point de Venise is 
characterized by large, free-flowing 
scrolls, frequently interrupted by cen- 
trally placed human forms. 

Introduced in France during the late 
17th - early 18th century by Colbert, Min- 
ister to Louis XIV, the lace type became 
known as Point Colbert. About the same 
time, it was introduced in Spain, where 
it became known as Punto Espana. 

Man's Collar; large floral and foliated 
scrolls terminating at either side of the front. 
Italy or France, about 1670. 

128 ACC NO. 1962-50-28 A 

Small Panel; centered angel, holding in his 
right hand a palm leaf, in his left hand a 
crown, flanked on either side by large floral 
and foliated scrolls. Italy, late i7th-early 
18th century. 

129 ACC. NO. 1962-50-26 [IK] 

Border; serpentine pattern of large conven- 
tionalized flowers and foliage, partly in refief. 
Italy, France or Spain, late 17th century. 

130 ACC NO. 1962-50-62 [P] 

Altar Frontal; figure of Saint Theresa in 
center, surrounded by floral scrolls in high 
relief. Italy or France, late 17th century. 

131 ACC NO. 1962-50-71 [P] 



i3 



Chalice Cover; symmetrical design of floral 

and foliated forms surrounding central floral 

motif in high relief. Italy, late 17th century. 

132 Acc. NO. 1962-50-30 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers ig62-50-8o [P], -112, -228, -230, 
-231, -236, -237. 
133-139 



PLAT POINT DE VENISE 

Lacking the cordonnet outlines character- 
istic of Gros Point de Venise, this type of 
Venetian lace has a flat, two-dimensional 
quality. 

Fragment; stylized floral and foliated forms 
in large scale symmetric scroll design. Italy, 
17th century. 
140 ACC. NO. 1962-50-229 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-1 1 1 and -240 [C]. 

141-142 



POINT DE VENISE A ROSE 

Point de Venise a Rose bears all charac- 
teristics of Gros Point de Venise, but with 
pattern of a smaller scale. The cordonnet 
outlines the pattern, again elaborately 
decorated with picotees. 

Fragment; foliated and floral forms in asym- 
metric design. Italy, Venice, late i7th-early 
18th century. 
143 ACC. NO. 1962-50-233 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers ig6z-so-8i [P], -8g [P], -108, 
-log, -110, -164, -238 A-C, -239 [C]. 

144-151 



The climax in craftsmanship of the Vene- 
tian laces is reached in Rosaline, a form 
of Gros Point de Venise but more elabo- 
rate and delicate in detail. The cordonnet 
outlines the pattern, again further raised 
by picotees. The addition of fleurs vo- 
lantes gives this lace a characteristic 
plasticity. 



Pair of Lappets; "candlestick" pattern of 
floral and foliated forms in high relief. 
Straight outer edge interrupted at intervals 
by clusters of blossoms. Italy, late i7th-early 
18th century. 

152 ACC. NO. 1962-56-61 A AND B 

Portion of a Flounce; elaborated variant 
of "candlestick" pattern, interspersed with 
human and animal figures. Italy, 18th 
century. 

153 Acc. NO. 1962-50-235 [P] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers ig62-50-i6i, -232 [P], -234 
[MO-SF]. 
154-156 

POINT DE VENISE A RESEAU 

Point de Venise a Reseau is Point de 
Venise embedded in reseau, or ground of 
mesh. The pattern is no longer connected 
by brides picotees, nor outlined by an 
elaborate cordonnet; the connecting de- 
vice introduced becomes the reseau. The 
toile still shows the gaze quadrillee and 
portes as in Gros Point de Venise, but in 
addition this type introduces elaborate 
modes, such as reseau mouche, fond de 
neige and enchainettes. 

Pair of Lappets; asymmetric design of floral 
and foliated forms, flanked at intervals by 
scalloped garlands, emerging from a geo- 
metrically shaped base. Italy, first half of 
18th century. 

157 ACC. NO. 1962-50-38 A AND B 

Pair of Lappets; asvmmetric pattern of 
floral and foliated sprays rising from a sym- 
metricallv designed floral base. Italy, first 
half of 18th century. 

1 58 ACC. NO. 1962-50-2 A AND B 

Cap Crown; design of large conventional- 
ized leaves, flowers and floral clusters sur- 
rounding a central heart-shaped motif. Italy, 
first half of 18th century. 

159 AGO. NO. 1962-50-10 

Cuff for an Alb; styfized floral and fohated 
forms originating in a centrally placed heart- 
shaped motif. Italy, Burano, mid-i8th 
century. 

160 ACC. NO. 1962-50-13 [CL] 



14 



Rabat, or Cravat End; Center — heart- 
shaped motif surrounded by strapvvork pat- 
tern of bands, floral and foliated forms. 
Italy, first half of iSth century. 

161 Acc. NO. 1962-50-16 [C] 

Border; Center — blossom flanked by styl- 
ized floral and foliated forms in connecting 
overall serpentine design. Italy, first half of 
iSth centur\-. 

162 ACC. NO. 1962-50-65 [G] 

Border; asymmetric floral and foliated 
sprays rising from urn-shaped forms in in- 
verted repeat pattern. Italy, first half of iSth 
century. 

163 acc.no. 1962-50-70 [G] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-12 [AU], -33, -4g [P], 
-94, -97, -105, -106, -114, -244, -245, 
-308, -321. 
164-175 



POINT DE FRANCE 

Point de France is the French version of 
Point de Venise. Characteristically, the 
design is composed of human figures re- 
lated to floral forms. The connecting de- 
vice is a fond of brides picotees, which 
provides an airy quality to the lace. In the 
toile, partes and gaze qiiadrillee occur 
and often reseau mouche and enchai- 
nettes appear as modes. 

Rabat, or Cravat End; Center — abstract 
foliated forms, flanked by identical stylized 
representations of trees, surrounded lay an 
intricate pattern of volutes, urns and rocaille 
decoration. France or Italy, first half of 18th 
century. 
i''6 Acc. NO. 1962-50-7 [W] 

Rabat, or Cravat End; figure dressed as a 
warrior, wearing a helmet in form of a 
double-headed eagle, standing on a trophee 
flanked by kneeling warriors, the scene sur- 
mounted by a royal crown and surrounded 
by dolphins, winged putti, warrior figures 
and foliated sprays. France, late 17th 
century. 
"^ acc. no. 1962-50-18 A [P] 



Rabat, or Cravat End; figure of a seated 
\\'oman surmounted by stylized canopy sur- 
rounded by human figures, foliated forms 
and rocaille decoration. France, late 17th 
century. 

1^6 Acc. NO. 1962-50-18 B [IK] 

0\'AL Medallion; French royal sun con- 
tained within half-domed architectural struc- 
ture, surrounded bv stvlized foliated gar- 
lands. France, late 17th century. 
1^9 ACC. NO. 1962-50-64 [P] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1Q62-50-67 [P], -go [R], -107, 
-241 A and B, -243, -246. 
180-185 



POINT DE SEDAN 

Believed to have originated in the city of 
Sedan, this variant of Point de France is 
distinguished by floral and foliated forms 
closely groupecl, allowing little space for 
the connecting brides picotees. The toile 
shows the gaze qiiadrillee and portes, the 
modes are petit reseau, reseau mouche, 
point mignon, and jond de neige, occa- 
sionally St. Esprit avec rangs clairs. 
Generally the pattern is outHned by a fine 
cordonnet. 

Border; cartouches connected by floral and 
foliated spravs. France, earlv 18th centurv. 

186 ACQ. NO. 1962-50-115 

Pair of Lappets; intricate pattern of floral 
and foliated forms in complex garland de- 
sign. France, first half of 18th centurv. 

167 ACC NO. 1962-50-52 A AND B [P] 

Border; garland of scrolled floral and foli- 
ated forms in repeat pattern. France, mid- 
18th century. 

168 ACC NO. 1962-50-113 

Border; floral and foliated garlands, inter- 
rupted by diagonal bands. France, first half 
of 18th century. 

169 ACC NO. 1962-50-137 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers ig62-50-86 [BL], -g6, -gg, -101, 

-242. 

190-194 



15 



POINT D ALENgON 

In general Point d'Alengon depends on a 
uniform fond employing a reseau of bride 
boitclee and bride tortillee. It is believed 
that the reseau was introduced about 
1700. Other Alengon characteristics are 
the use of small scale patterns and the 
introduction of infinite numbers of modes, 
such as enchainettes, reseau mouche, oeil 
de perdrix, petit reseau, St. Esprit avec 
rangs clairs, point mignon, and seme de 
larmes, either employed independently 
or as fonds. By the late 18th century Point 
d'Alenfon patterns were often worked on 
Flemish bobbin lace fonds. 

BoBDER; foliated forms and medallions in 
symmetric pattern surmounted bv repeat 
design of oval wreaths terminating in floral 
sprays. France, early 19th century. 
195 Acc. NO. 1962-50-12S 

Portion of a Flounce; spray of foliage 
surrounded by garlands of medallions and 
floral sprays in symmetric design, France, 
late 18th century. 
19S Acc. NO. 1962-50-253 



Pair of Lappets; serpentine garlands of 
small scale flowers and leaves with connect- 
ing bow-knots in repeat pattern. France, late 
18th century. 

197 ACC. NO. 1962-50-73 A AND B [MA] 

Stomacher; globe atop spray of wheat 
sheaves surmounted by lion and flanked at 
right by cock, at left by hand holding a scale; 
Border — stylized olive branches and wheat; 
Background — reseau interrupted with regu- 
lar pattern of bees and "tear" motifs. France, 
early 19th century. 

198 ACC. NO. 1962-50-24 [P] 

Stomacher; double-headed eagle flanked 
by olive branches, surmounted by crescent 
moon and star, surrounded by border of 
individual floral sprays. France, early 19th 
century. 

199 ACC NO. 1962-50-25 [P] 



Portion of a Flounce; over-all bee pattern, 
bordered by lilies and a garland of leaves 
and berries. France, early 19th century. 
200 ACC no. 1962-50-69 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-24, -39 [V], -40 [V], -41 
[V], -42 [P], -74 A-C, -87, -93 A-E, 
-95, -98, -102, -103, -145, -156, -158, 
-159, -162, -163, -165, -167, -168, -169, 
-178, -248, -249, -250, -251, -252, 
-254, -255. 

201-229 

Sleeve Ruffle, Point d' Alengon on Dro- 
schel ground; center — cartouche surrounded 
by asymmetric pattern of floral sprays. 
Flanders, Brussels, late 18th century. 
230 ACC NO. 1962-50-66 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-30-47, -144, -316. 

231-233 



POINT D ARGENT AN 

The chief characteristic of this lace is its 
reseau, the bride bouclee. Visually the 
reseau is less delicate than that of Point 
d'Alengon. Argentan lace employs many 
of the same modes as those of Alengon 
lace. The toile is also decorated with gaze 
quadrillee and partes. 

Pair of Lappets; open floral pattern, con- 
tained within compartments and alternated 
with medallions. France, mid-i8th century. 

234 ACC NO. 1962-50-6 A AND B [L] 

Pair of Lappets; outlining serpentine band 
intertwined with floral garlands, enframing 
centrally placed floral sprays. France, late 
18th century. 

235 ACC NO. 1962-50-9 A AND B [L] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-31, -48, -75 [P], -78, -83 
[R], -84 [LF], -85 [V], -88 [P], -100, 
-104, -247. 

236-246 

Border; small scale floral and foliated forms 

in repeat design. Netherlands, 17th century. 

247 ACC NO. 1962-50-116 



Examples of late i6th-earhj lyth cen- 
tury English needle lace are accession 
numbers 1962-50-222 [MO] and -225 
[MO]. 
248-249 

Examples of embroidered net, late 
i6th-early ijth century Italy, are ac- 
cession numbers 1962-50-206, -283 
[MO] and -286 A and B. 

250-252 

DARNED FILET 

Darned Filet relates to both needle and 
bobbin lace. The filet is made of horizon- 
tal and vertical threads knotted at all 
points of intersection, creating a square 
net. The pattern is darned into the filet. 
This textile art was well known and 
widely made during the 16th century and 
thereafter. 

Chasuble; front and back panels of similar 
design, on front panel the names "Antonius" 
and "Matthaei," on the back panel Saint 
Barbara, holding her symbols — in her right 
hand an architectural structure, in her left 
hand a palm leaf; areas of identically com- 



posed design on both panels, pairs of winged 
putti and angels, set within a large scale 
arrangement, emerging from an urn, of floral 
and foliated scroll pattern, surrounding a 
large ogival medallion which contains a floral 
spray. South Germany or Switzerland, mid- 
17th century. 

253 ACC. NO. 1962-50-184 A AND B 



MACRAME 

The term Macrame derives from Arabic, 
and means knotting. A forerunner of bob- 
bin lace, it is made by knotting individual 
vertical threads, which are either pinned 
into place or attached to the edge of a 
piece of cloth. Its outstanding character- 
istic is a long fringe of single threads. The 
technique was already in use during the 
15th and 16th centuries. 

Border; band of highly stylized human fig- 
ures, alternating with vertical bands. Lower 
portion of inverted triangles ending in long 
fringe. Italy, late i6th-early ijih century. 
254 Acc. NO. 1962-50-280 



— BOBBIN LACE 

While needle lace is essentially embroidery upon itself, bobbin lace, 
sometimes called "pillow lace," is somewhat related to woven con- 
struction. Many threads are used simultaneously, sometimes as many as 
several hundreds. Each tliread is wound on a small spool, or bobbin, 
which makes possible its manipulation without tangling. The lace making 
is done on a tightly stuffed pillow, to which tlireads are pmned and 
removed as the work progresses. The thi'eads are crossed, intertwined, 
in a sense woven, on each other. 



VENETIAN 

Venetian pillow lace relates closely to the 
early needle lace, Punto in Aria. The pat- 
tern, usually contained within geometric 
forms, often resembles decorative iron 
work. Later examples of the 17th and 18th 
centuries introduce free, intertwining 
floral forms. 



Boeder; narrow band of diagonal stripes in 
repeat pattern, floral serpentines alternating 
with wider bands of intertwining leaves. 
Italy, Venice, late i7th-early 18th century. 
255 ACC. NO. 1962-50-43 [MO] 

Border; narrow band of open, abstract 
flowers and leaves from which are suspended 



V 



large, triangular pendant floral sprays. Italy, 
Venice, late i6th-early 17th century. 
25e Acc. NO. i962-5o-276'[MO-SF] 



Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-263 [MO-SF], -265 
[MO-SF], -267 [MO-SF], -268 [MO- 
SF], -271 [MO-SF]. 
257-261 

An example of similar type, of French 
provenance, about 1600, is accession 
number 1962-50-258. 
262 



This type usually resembles the needle 
lace, Punto in Aria, but differs in tech- 
nique. 

Border; connected pendants outlined by 
scalloped edges alternating with geometric 
rosettes. Italy, Genoa, second half of 17th 
century. 

263 ACC. NO. 1962-50-45 [MO-SF] 

Border; serpentine floral pattern, containing 
birds and pierced hearts, outlined in relief. 
Italy, Genoa or Milan, late i7th-early 18th 
century. 

264 ACC. NO. 1962-50-44 [MO] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-198 A and B, -199, 
-264 [MO], -266 [MO-SF], -269 
[MO-SF], -270 [MO-SF], -273 [MO]. 
265-271 



ated spray, flanked by birds in flight, animals 
and peacocks, each pendant enframed by a 
border of styhzed floral forms. Italy or 
Flanders, early 17th century. 

272 Acc. NO. 1962-50-272 [MO] 

Border; narrow band in repeat pattern of 
birds in flight and geometric foliated forms, 
from which are suspended three large 
rounded pendants. In each, a double-headed 
eagle, surmounted by a crown, surrounded 
by foliated and floral forms. Border, smaller 
pendants, each composed of a single geo- 
metric motif. Italy or Flanders, mid-i7th 
century. 

273 ACC. NO. 1962-50-274 



An additional example is accession 
number 1962-50-304 A-D. Similar ex- 
amples, but of Milanese or Venetian 
provenance, are accession numbers 
1962-50-275 [C] and -284. 

274-276 



MILANESE A BRIDES 

The pattern is connected by brides rather 
than the Valenciennes reseau found in 
Milanese bobbin lace. This substitution 
provides a more open appearance to 
Milanese a Brides. 

Fragment; Center, double-headed eagle 
surrounded by scrolls of large scale floral 
and fohated forms. Italy, Milan, late 17th- 
early 18th century. 
277 ACC. NO. 1962-50-14 [IK] 



MILANESE OR FLEMISH 

These two bobbin laces differ only in that 
Italian lace makers put in the fond of 
Valenciennes reseau after the lace pattern 
had been finished rather than before. 
Made of a finer thread, Flemish laces are 
softer to the touch than Milanese laces. 

Border; repeat pattern of three large 
rounded pendants, in each a central motif 
composed of a grotesque human figure, sur- 
mounted by a vase from which rises a foU- 



Man's Collar; styhzed floral and foliated 
forms in large scale symmetric arrangement. 
North Italy, late i7th-early 18th century. 

278 ACC. NO. 1962-50-91 [P] 

Fragment; large scale fohated scroll pat- 
tern in diagonal, symmetric arrangement. 
Italy, Milan, 18th century. 

279 ACC. NO. 1962-50-287 [SF] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-126, -129, -130, -132, 
-157, -170, -277, -282 [IK], -285. 
280-288 



19 



Dutch bobbin lace is usually composed 
of densely patterned design, with an ab- 
sence of the elaborate modes character- 
istic of many other lace types. 

Border; small scale floral and geometric 
shapes, set within repeat grouping of four 
pendants. Holland, 17th century. 

289 Acc. NO. 1962-50-278 

Border; oval floral clusters flanked by 
densely foliated scrolls, terminating in styl- 
ized floral forms. Holland, early 18th century. 

290 ACC NO. 1962-50-298 [MO] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-166, -279. 

291-292 



POINT D ANGLETERRE A RESEAU 

The name given to this lace is a mis- 
nomer, as this lace was neither a needle 
lace, which would justify the "point", nor 
was it made in England. Generally it is 
believed that Point d'Angleterre lace was 
made in Brussels for the English market 
and smuggled into England at the end of 
the 17th century, since the importing of 
Flemish laces there had been declared 
illegal in 1662. The chief characteristics 
of this lace are a small cordonnet which 
raises the pattern into slight relief, a fond 
known as vrai Droschel, numerous modes 
such as reseau mauche, venises, enclwin- 
ettes, and fond de neige. Point d'Angle- 
terre is not a straight-edged lace — its 
threads follow the outline and the shape 
of the lace pattern. It is also beheved that 
the lace itself was made separately and 
that the fond, the Droschel, was worked 
in afterwards in areas where needed. 

Rabat, or Cravat End; Center — figure of 
Minerva, placed below canopy, widiin sym- 
metric tulip garden setting of balustrades, 
finials entwined by floral garlands and stand- 
ing on arched trelliswork bases, potted orange 
trees on bases are balanced by two long- 



tailed birds perching on either side of the 
lower balustrade. Floral sprays create all- 
over pattern in remaining areas. Flanders, 
Brussels, first quarter of 18th century. 

293 Acc. NO. 1962-50-17 [L] 

Pair of Lappets; cartouche continuing in 
asymmetric open pattern of floral serpentine 
bands, terminating in floral and foliated 
sprays. Flanders, Brussels, last half of 18th 
century. 

294 ACC. NO. 1962-50-36 a and B 

Pair of Lappets; asymmetiic volutes placed 
at intervals terminating in complex floral 
sprays. Flanders, Brussels, last half of 18th 
century. 

295 AGO. NO. 1962-50-59 a and b 

Cap Crown; Center — vase surmounted and 
flanked by elaborate, stylized floral and foli- 
ated forms. Flanders, Brussels, first half of 
18th century. 

296 Acc. no. 1962-50-8 

Cap Crown; Center — fountain surmounted 
by chinoiserie pavifion and flanked by floral 
and foliated sprays and rocaille decoration. 
Flanders, Brussels, mid- 18th century. 

297 ACQ. NO. 1962-50-5 

Rabat, or Cravat End; Cenfer— urn-shaped 
motif composed and surrounded by sym- 
metrically arranged floral and foliated forms. 
Flanders, Brussels, first half of 18th century. 

298 Acc. NO. 1962-50-1 [L] 

Border; initials contained within wreathed 
medallion, surmounted by crown and flanked 
by symmetrically placed fountains, putti, 
stylized foliated forms and rocaille decora- 
tion. Flanders, Brussels, late i7th-early 18th 
century. 

299 ACC NO. 1962-50-3 

Portion of a Flounce; large medallions 
separated by wide interconnecting bands, 
surrounded by floral and foliated sprays, fan- 
tastic animals, and rocaille ornament. Medal- 
lions composed of alternating scenes, one 
showing seahorses driven by Neptune hold- 
ing a triton, beneath which are fantastic sea 



animals and additional rocaille decoration, 
with birds perched in foliated branches, the 
other a cartouche surmounted by a large 
trophee, above which a winged bird carries 
a floral spray. Flanders, Brussels, first half 
of i8th century. 
300 Acc. NO. 1962-50-183 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-34, -77, -79, -117, -118, 
-121, -139, -140, -146, -149, -igo, 
-154, -175, -291, -292, -293, -294 [P], 

-305 [PL -306, -313- 

301-320 



POINT D ANGLETERRE A BRIDES 

Point d'Angleterre a Brides differs in only 
one respect from Point d'Angleterre a 
Reseau, the pattern is connected by 
brides, rather than reseau. 

Portion of a Flounce; Center — eagle sur- 
mounted by radiant sun, flanked by entwined 
initials and paired medallions containing the 
portraits of a man and a woman. Above — 
crowns under canopies. BeZou) — hearts 
pierced by arrows and chained together, 
lover's knots and initials. Probably made for 
the marriage of Maximilian Emmanuel of 
Bavaria and Therese Cunegonde, daughter 
of John Sobieski of Poland. Flanders, Brus- 
sels, late i/th-early 18th century. 

321 ACQ. NO. 1962-50-68 

Pair of Lappets; dense, symmetric pattern 
of elaborate floral and foliated forms, rising 
from stylized vases. Flanders, Bi-ussels, first 
quarter of 18th century. 

322 AGO. NO. 1962-50-60 A AND B 

Pair of Lappets; asymmetric, dense pat- 
tern of floral and foliated forms contained 
in undulating ovals, connected by narrow 
serpentine band and floral clusters. Flanders, 
Brussels, first half of 18th century. 

323 ACC. NO. 1962-50-58 A AND B 

Pair of Lappets; dense, serpentine floral 
and foliated pattern interspersed by geo- 
metric forms and floral clusters. Flanders, 
Brussels, first half of 18th century. 

324 ACC. NO. 1962-50-37 A AND B 



Rabat, or Cravat End; undulating, foliated 
pattern entwined and surrounded by sym- 
metrically arranged floral and foliated forms. 
Flanders, Brussels, first half of 18th century. 
325 ACC. NO. 1962-50-H [L] 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-27, -119, -138, -288 /^SFJ, 
-296, -297, -314. 
326-332 



VALENCIENNES 

The early patterns employed in Valen- 
ciennes lace relate to tliose used in 
Flemish laces, while later examples show 
definite design influences, primarily de- 
tached floral sprays, from the needle 
laces of Alengon and Argentan. 

In Valenciennes lace the toile and the 
fond are worked at the same time and in 
one piece. It is a straight-edged lace, in 
this respect identical to Mechlin lace, but 
Valenciennes lace lacks the shiny outline 
which is so characteristic of Mechlin lace. 
The fond is the vrai reseau de Valenci- 
ennes, a diamond mesh, sometimes the 
maille rand or the maille carree. The 
modes found are the fond de neige and 
maille a cinq trous. 

Provenance of this lace type shifts after 
1678 from Flanders to France, when Va- 
lenciennes, the town of manufacture, be- 
came French by treaty. 

Pair of Lappets; asymmetric, open floral 
pattern, enframed by narrow garlands, ter- 
minating in abbreviated scrolls. France, 
Valenciennes, late iSth century. 

333 ACC. NO. 1962-50-122 A AND B 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-147, -148, -151, -152, 
-174, -309 [MO-SF]. 
334-339 



BINCHE 

Lace from Binche is often referred to as 
Fausse Valenciennes. Compared to Va- 



21 



lenciennes, Binche lace is not a straight- 
edged lace; its threads follow the outline 
and the shape of the lace pattern, such as 
in Point d'Angleterre. In addition to this 
difference, Binche lace is known for its 
numerous modes such as maille a cinq 
trous, venises, amures, and its elaboration 
of the fond de neige. 

Lappet; asymmetric pattern of floral and 
foliated forms, balanced by serpentine gar- 
lands and complexly shaped volutes at inter- 
vals. Flanders, Binche, mid-i8th century. 
340 Acc. NO. 1962-50-51 



Pair of Lappets; series of medallion com- 
partments, connected by volutes terminating 
in scrolls, containing in each respectively a 
winged cupid, prancing deer, leaping rabbit, 
together with an architectural structure be- 
neath a tree, a flying bird and a bird perched 
on tree. Flanders, Mechlin, mid-i8th century. 
348 ACC. NO. 1962-50-57 a and b 



Cap Crown; Center — floral bouquet en- 
framed by elaborate symmetric scrollwork, 
giving appearance of a fan, surrounded by 
foliated sprays. Flanders, Mechlin, first half 
of 18th century. 
349 Acc. NO. 1962-50-4 [L] 



Pair of Lappets; dense, symmetrical floral 
and foliated pattern, surrounding compart- 
ments containing asymmetric bouquets of 
carnations. Flanders, Binche, first half of 
18th century. 

341 Acc. no. 1962-50-55 a and b [HA] 

Lappet; symmetric pattern of foliated and 
floral forms, set within medallions of vary- 
ing shapes, connected by serpentine garlands 
outlining medallions. Flanders, Binche, first 
half of 18th century. 

342 Acc. NO. 1962-50-50 



Rabat, or Cravat End; Center — cartouche 
filled by bowl of flowers, surrounded by floral 
and foliated branches, interspersed by vo- 
lutes, terminating in scrolls. Flanders, Mech- 
lin, mid- 18th century. 

350 ACC. NO. 1962-50-19 [L] 

Pair of Lappets; asymmetric "pearled" ser- 
pentine band, intertwined at intervals by 
floral and foliated forms. Flanders, Mechlin, 
first half of 18th century. 

351 Acc. NO. 1962-50-54 a and b 



Additional examples are accession num- 
bers ig6z-50-i73, -299 [MO], -300 
[MO], -301, -310 [V]. 

343-347 



Mechlin lace is often referred to as the 
"Queen of Laces" because of its delicate 
qualities. The designs found in Mechlin 
lace relate to those of Brussels lace, al- 
though the design is generally less preten- 
tious. Mechlin lace can be differentiated 
from all other bobbin lace types by a fine, 
shiny thread which outlines the pattern. 
The fond is the shorter Droschel, the 
modes employed are the fond de neige 
and fond chant. Fortes occur in the toile. 
Like Valenciennes lace, Mechlin lace is a 
straight-edged lace, worked in one piece. 



Pair of Lappets; repeated floral spray set 
within oval medallions, connected by sym- 
metric swirling and crossing leaf-pattern, 
forming additional medallions containing 
centially placed quatrefoil shapes. Flanders, 
Mechlin, mid-i8th century. 

352 ACC. NO. 1962-50-53 a and b [mo] 

Lappet; open floral sprays alternating with 
floral bouquets, emerging from cornucopias 
enframed by garlands, terminating in small- 
scale scrolls at intervals. Flanders, Mechlin, 
mid- 18th century. 

353 Acc. NO. 1962-50-120 



Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-46 [HA], -76, -92, -143, 
-153, -^55, -j6o, -171, -289, -295 
[MO], -302, -303, -307 [MO-SF], -308 
[MO-SF]. 
354-3S7 



POINT DE FLANDRES 

Point de Flandres was made of an un- 
usually fine thread, produced only in 
Flanders. It was in direct competition 
with all Italian lace manufacture through- 
out the 17th century. 

Portion of a Flounce; alternating motifs, 
one composed of dancing female figure at- 
tended bv winged putto, enframed by rocaille 
decoration, the other, a centrally placed 
potted tree set on table, flanked by figures 
dressed as Indians and surrounded by geo- 
metric forms and additional rocaille decora- 
tion. Flanders, late lyth-early 18th century. 
368 AGO. no. 1962-50-141 



An additional example is accession 
number ig62-5o-i42. 
369 



The town of Lille, formerly Flemish but 
a French possession since 1678, manufac- 
tured a lace during the late 18th and early 
19th centuries, in design and pattern 
closely related to Mechlin lace, its only 
difference being its fond, known as fond 
simple. 

Medallion; design encompassing shield of 
Napoleon I, surrounded by indiyidual floral 
sprays. France, Lille, 19th century. 

370 Acc. no. 1962-50-317 



Border; stylized floral sprays in repeat pat- 
tern, of the type of lace made in Lille. Spain, 
second half of 18th century. 
371 ACC. NO. 1962-50-176 

Additional examples are accession num- 
bers 1962-50-312 [V], -313 [V]. 

372-373 



Predominantly made in Tonder, Den- 
mark, this is a type of drawn work, com- 
bined with embroidery, imitating both 
bobbin and needle lace patterns. The pat- 
tern, generally outlined by cordonnet, 
was carried out on either very fine muslin 
or linen. Tonder work often employed a 
coarse needle with a very fine thread. By 
doing so it created an effect of openwork 
meshes, suggesting drawn work, although 
the threads of the cloth remained intact. 



Pair of Lappets, muslin; serpentine gar- 
land of floral and foliated forms, accentuated 
by intermittent parallel bands, interpretation 
of a French pattern. Denmark, Tonder, first 
half of 18th century. 

376 ACC. NO. 1962-50-56 A AND B [MO] 

Fan, muslin; Center — iarm scene composed 
of a shepherd and animals, tree and barn, 
flanked by large cornucopias from which fall 
floral and foliated sprays in scroll pattern, 
interspersed by symmetrically placed birds 
and two large praying mantises. Denmark or 
Germany, 18th century. 

377 AGO. NO. I962-5O-318 



Additional examples are accession num- 
bers ig62-$o-i34 and -135. 
378-379 



Similar examples of drawn work and 
embroidery but of French provenance 
are accession numbers ig62-5o-2go 
and -319. 

380-381 

Examples of metallic thread bobbin 
lace, dating from the late 16th and 
early 1 yth century of Italian or Spanish 
provenance are accession numbers 
1962-50-179, -180 A and B, -260, -261 
and -262. 
382-386 



Examples in the character of Mechlin 
lace, but of Spanish provenance are 
accession numbers igGz-so-iyz and 
-311 [V]- 

374-375 



Examples of bobbin lace peasant work 
of Italian or German provenance, 18th 
century, are accession numbers ig62- 
So-181 A and B and -281. 

387-388 — C.C.M. 



23 



Textiles and Embroideries 



T 

Ah] 



.HE SELECTION OF TEXTILES represented in the bequest indicates the col- 
lector's appreciation of excellence, whether in style, technique, design or artistic 
skill. His recognition of the educational values of such documentation from tlie 
past is evident in the meticulous care expended on the mounting of so many 
choice fragments from the post-Renaissance period up to the beginning of the 
19th century, which encompassed his collecting interest. 

Among these textiles is a group of velvet pictures, by Gaspard Gregoii-e 
(1751-1846) and some of his imitators, of particular interest because of their 
extraordinary technique. Late in the 18th century Gregoii-e developed a process, 
which he kept secret, of painting a design on the velvet warps, which were later 
woven in the piece. The method required the utmost skill in calculation and in 
weaving. It is in some ways related to the process of warp printing or chine of 
which this collection shows examples. Many of Gregoire's designs were copies 
of paintings. As Gregoire's production was not large his works are rarely found 
in textile collections, although they may be seen in some French museums. 



Two Borders, a — light brown linen em- Border, linen embroidered with red silk; 

broidered in brown and yellow; stylized vine entwined trunk, birds and butterflies; border 

pattern. i>- White linen embroidered in light of bobbin lace. Italy, 16th or early 17th 

brown; pattern of branching trunk; Italy, century, 

late 16th century. 412 acc. no. 1962-52-3 

409-410 ACC. NO. I962-52-6 AND -7 

Border, linen embroidered in red silk; epi- Border, linen embroidered in green silk; 

sodes from tlie story of Abraham and Isaac, episodes from the story of Adam and Eve 

within frames of entwined branches. Italy, in the Garden; border of bobbin lace. Italy, 

i6tli or early 17th century. 16th or early 17th century. 

411 ACC. NO. 1962-52-1 413 ACC NO. 1962-52-2 

25 



Fragment of an EMBRomEBEo Picture, 
linen solidly worked witli polvchrome silk 
and gold thread; floral motifs, stag and lion. 
England, 17th century. 

414 Acc. NO. 1962-52-34 

Unfinished Picture, Bnen, embroidered in 
colored silks; design suggested by a print by 
Gerard de Jode after Martin de Vos, "Eliezer 
and Rebeka." England, 17th century. 

415 ACC. NO. 1962-52-10 

Details from a Waistcoat, fragment from 
side and pocket flap, white silk embroidered 
in polychrome silks; floral pattern in style of 
Bony. France, late 18th century. 

416 ACC. NO. 1962-52-25 a and b 

Two Salesman's Samples for Embroi- 
dered Waistcoats, white satin worked in 
polychrome silks. France, late 18th century. 

41 7 ACC. NO. 1962-52-23 A AND B 

Fragments, details from a waistcoat; cream 
white taffeta embroidered with poh'chrome 
silks, silver and brilliants, with applied me- 
dallions of printed silks. France or England, 
late 18th century. 

418 acc. no. 1962-52-21 a and b 

Sample of Embroidery for Waistcoat; 
black yelyet embroidered in gold thread, 
sequins, brilliants and white silk; floral pat- 
tern in style of Bony. France, late 18th 
century. 

419 ACC NO. 1962-52-29 A AND B 

Other samples for embroidered waist 
coats are accession numbers 1962-52- 
22 A, B, C. 

420 

Detail for Side of a Dress, cream color 
taffeta embroidered in polychrome silks and 
gold; fantastic pattern of large flower spray, 
man with long pole reaching to basket. 
France, mid- 18th century. 
421 ACC. NO. 1962-52-19 

Other embroidered borders and details 
of the i6th-i8th century will be found 
under accession numbers 1962-52-4, 
-5, -8, -9, -II, -16, -17, -18 A-D, -20, 
-24, -26 A and B, -27, -28, -30 and -33. 

422-439 



Orphrey, silk, gold and linen; Adoration of 
the Christ Child. Italy, late isth-early 16th 



centur)'. 

440 



ACC. NO. 1962-56-33 



Other orphreijs of the same period may 
be found under accession numbers 
1962-56-27 through -32. 

441 -446 

Three Fragments, a — Green and cream 
color silk and linen border; confronted hons, 
tower. Italy, 16th century, h — Red and 
cream color fragment, silk damask; rayed sun 
with crown. Spain or Italy, 16th century. 
c — Red and cream color silk border; putti; 
from a design in the manner of Gioyanni 
Ostaus. Italy, 16th century. 

447-449 ■ ACC. NO. 1962-56-1, -2, AND -3 [S] 

Shaped Panel, grey-blue silk twill, bro- 
caded in gold, rose and white; small scale 
pattern of palmette, rosette and bar. Italy, 
16th century. 

450 Acc. NO. 1962-56-58 

Panel, brown satin with polychrome small 
scale design; flowers. Italy or Spain, early 
17th century. 

451 ACC. NO. 1962-56-55 

Fragment, green silk damask, brocaded in 
gold and rose; symmetrically entwined foli- 
age, grotesque figures and tower. Italy, 17th- 
18th century. 

452 ACC. NO. 1962-56-16 

Fragment, green silk damask, brocaded in 
gold and rose; hunters, birds, winged figures, 
supporting urn. Italy, late i7th-early 18th 
century. 

453 ACC NO. 1962-56-12 

Fragment, green silk damask, brocaded in 
gold and red; hunter, cupid shooting bird, 
rayed head. Italy, late i/th-early 18th 
century. 

454 ACC. NO. 1962-56-11 

Similar textiles of the 16th and 17th 
century will be found under accession 
numbers iq62-$6-4 through -10. 

455-461 



26 



Panel, green silk brocaded in polychrome 
silks; symmetrical pattern of fruit and flower 
clusters surrounding architectural detail with 
sunburst above. Italy, first half of i8th 



century. 

462 



ACC. NO. 1962-56-65 



Square, salmon pink satin, brocaded in poly- 
chrome silks and gold; flowers, foliage, fruit 
in symmetrical arrangement. France or Italy, 
first half of 18th century. 

463 ACC. NO. 1962-56-77 

Panel, hght blue satin, compound weave; 
floral sprays, rococo forms. Probably Italy, 
mid- 18th century. 

464 ACC. NO. 1962-56-62 

Cape, coral pink silk damask, brocaded in 
gold and green; fantastic design of boy rid- 
ing an ostrich, boy playing a 'cello, birds, 
monkey, flowers and fruit. Italy, mid- 18th 
century. 

465 ACC. NO. 1962-56-63 

Panel, dark green silk damask, brocaded in 
gold and pink silk; fantastic intertwined 
foliage and flowers. Italy, mid-i8th century. 

466 AGO. NO. 1962-56-60 

Panel, green and white silk damask; sym- 
metrical pattern of flowers and castle flanked 
by rampant lions, addorsed stags and birds. 
Probably Spain, mid-i8th century. 

467 ACC. NO. 1962-56-70 

Square, rose ribbed silk, brocaded in poly- 
chrome silks, chenille, gold and silver; flower 
sprays, drapery and cushions. France, pos- 
sibly for the Russian market, mid-i8th 
century. 

468 ACC NO. 1962-56-76 

Panel, light green ribbed silk, brocaded in 
polychrome silks; figures seated under a tree, 
floral sprays. France, last half 18th century 

469 ACC. NO. 1962-56-75 

Other European textiles of the 17th 
and 18th century may be found under 
accession numbers 1962-56-13 A and 
B, -14 A and B, -15, -17, -18, -ig, -20, 
-36, -37, -52, -54, -55, -56, -61, -64, 



-66, -67, -68, -69, -71, -72, -73, -74, 
-76, -78, and -187, -igs through -194 
A-E. 

470-502 

Detail of Waistcoat, rust red silk bro- 
caded in colors and gold; flowers. France or 
Italy, mid- 18th century. 

503 ACC NO. 1962-56-21 

Detail of Waistcoat, cream color silk 
brocaded in colors; lovers discovered. France, 
late 18th century. 

504 ACC. NO. 1962-56-23B [S] 

Detail of Waistcoat, dark blue silk bro- 
caded in colors; amorous gardener and 
maiden. France, late 18th century. 

505 ACC NO. 1962-58-23A [S] 

Pocket Flaps for Waistcoats, a — Silk 
brocaded in colors and red chenille. France, 
mid- 18th century, b — Grey-green silk, de- 
sign in yellow and cream color; reclining 
figure. France, late 18th or early 19th cen- 
tury, c — Light green satin, pattern of black 
cut and uncut velvet. France, mid-i8th 
century. 

506-508 



ACC NO. 1962-56-lC 



) AND -170 



Fragment from Front of a Waistcoat, 
dark red silk brocaded in colors; chinoiserie 
pattern of fisherman and bird, flower bor- 
ders. Probably France, late 18th century. 

509 ACC. no. 1962-56-22 [S] 

Woven Portraits in Silk; Empress 
Eugenie, Napoleon I, Due d'Orleans. France, 
mid- 19th century. 

510 ACC NO. 1962-56-38 A, B, c 

Another woven silk portrait will be 
found under accession number 1962- 

56-39- 
511 

Panel, black silk velvet, cut and uncut, v^rith 
ground shot with silver; symmetrical pattern 
of palmette and foliage. Italy, 16th century. 

512 ACC NO. 1962-56-40 

Panel, green silk velvet, cut and uncut; pal- 
mette and foliage. Italy, iGth-iyth century. 

513 ACC NO. 1962-56-47 



27 



Panel, brown silk velvet on cream color 
ground; flowering branches. Italy, iSth-iyth 
century. 

514 ACC. NO. 1962-56-48 

Panel, green silk velvet, cut and uncut, on 
yellow ground; feathered twining foliage 
forms and bars. Italy, 16th or early 17th 
century. 

515 ACC. NO. 1962-56-46 

Back of Chasuble and Panel, red silk cut 
and stamped velvet; curved forms framing 
palmettes. Italy, 16th or early 17th century. 

516 AGO. no. 1962-56-44A AND B 

Fragments, a — Light brown silk velvet, 
cut and uncut, cream color ground; fan 
shaped motifs between horizontal zig-zag 
bars, b — Red silk velvet border, cut and un- 
cut, on cream color ground; interlacing vine; 
narrow guard borders in blue and brown. 
Italy, 16th century. 

517-518 AGO. NO. 1962-56-89 AND -90 

Fragments, a — Brown silk velvet, faded 
from violet, cut and uncut, on yellow ground; 
geometric pattern, b — Rose silk velvet, cut 
and uncut, on yellow ground; geometric pat- 
tern. Italy, 16th century. 

519-520 AGC. NO. 1962-56-IO2A AND B 

Fragments, blue silk cut and uncut velvets 
on shot silver ground; small floral patterns. 
Italy, i6th-early 17th century. 
521-522 ACG. NO. 1962-56-95 and -96 

Fragments, various small patterned green 
silk velvets; stylized plant or geometric 
forms. Italy, i6th-i7th century. 

ACC. NO. 1962-56-97, -98, -99, -100 AND -101 

523-527 

Fragments, a — Dark blue silk velvet, cut 
and uncut; small scale symmetrical pattern, 
plant and foliage, b — Grey-blue and rose 
silk velvet, cut and uncut, on shot silver 
ground; small scale pattern, palmette and 
flower. Italy, i6-i7th century. 

528-529 ACC no. 1962-56-132 AND -133 

Fragments, a — Red silk cut and uncut 
velvet on yellow ground; small floral pattern. 
b — Rose silk velvet, cut and uncut on yellow 
ground. Italy, i6th-i7th century. 

530-531 ACC. NO. 1960-56-121 AND -122 



Fragment, green-gold silk velvet, cut and 
uncut, on red ground; intertwined floral vine, 
birds and fruit. Italy, late i6th-early 17th 
century. 
532 ACC. no. 1962-56-80 

Fragments, cut and uncut silk velvet in 
small scale styHzed patterns. Italy, 16th and 
early 17th century. 

533-538 AGG. NO. 1962-56-81 THROUGH -86 

Fragments, a — Red silk velvet, cut and 
uncut, on yellow ground; lion, bird, and 
flower, b — Blue silk velvet, cut and uncut, 
on yellow ground; peacock, flower, and lion 
rampant. Italy, i6th-i7th century. 

539-540 ' ACC NO. 1962-56-87 AND -88 

Fragments, green silk velvets: a — Small 
scale stamped pattern, b — Stamped inter- 
laced pattern, c — Striped, cut and uncut, 
with gold bands. Italy, i6th century. 
541-543 ACC NO. 1962-56-91, -92 AND -93 

Fragment, grey-blue silk velvet, cut and 
uncut, on yellow ground; symmetrical small 
scale pattern of plant and enframing leaves. 
Italy, i6th-i7th century. 
544 ACC NO. 1962-56-94 

Fragments, a — Brown silk velvet, cut and 
uncut, on yeUow ground; palmette in ogival 
frame, b — Light brown silk velvet, cut and 
uncut, on shot silver ground; flowering 
branch, c — Light brown silk velvet, cut and 
uncut, on cream ground; small waving leaf. 
Italy, i6th-i7th century. 
545-547 ACC NO. 1962-56-104, -105 and -106 

Cape for a Small Altar Figure, silver 
cloth and uncut velvet; pattern of alternating 
blocks, set at an angle, edged with silver 
lace. Italy or Spain, I7th-i8th century. 
548 ACC NO. 1962-56-59 

Other examples of velvets of the 16th- 
17th century will he found under ac- 
cession numbers 1962-56-41 A and B, 
-42, -43, -45, -50, -79, -103 A and B, 
-107 A and B through -120, -123 
through -130, -134 through -154. 
549-599 



28 



Six Fragments, silk velvet, in various reds, 
cut and uncut, floral patterns. France, last 
quarter i8th century. 

600-605 ACC. NO. 1962-56-155 THROUGH -160 

Fragments, a, h, c — Velvet, "velours mini- 
atures"; light colors, small scale patterns. 
Fiance, late iSth century, d — Velvet band, 
chine or warp printed with minute portraits 
of Louis XII, Henri IV, Louis XVI. France, 
late 18th century. 

ACC. NO. 1962-56-172, -173, -174 and -175 
60B-609 

Fragments, "velours miniatures": a — Dark 
blue, lighter blue and white on yellow 
ground; horizontal stripes, landscape with 
figures, b — Gray, blue and rose on gold-shot 
ground; flower wreaths framing figure of 
man in uniform, c — Red, blue and grey- 
green on bright pink ground; horizontal 
bands, hunter, birds, intertwined flower and 
ribbon garlands. France, late iSth century. 
acc. no. 1962-56-176 [S], -177 [S] AND -178 

610-612 

Other velours miniatures will he found 
under accession numbers ig62-56-i6i 
to -165, -166 A-C, -167 and -184 A-F. 
613-620 

Left Front of a Waistcoat, black velvet 
with pattern brocaded in colors; romantic 
groups of miniature figures in 18th century 
dress. France (?), first half of 19th century. 

621 ACC. NO. 1962-56-171 

Panel, black velvet, cut and uncut, on black 
satin ground; deep border vidth architectural 
details and men with crossed swords; per- 
pendicular stripes and minute flowers. Spain, 
late 18th century. 

622 ACC NO. 1962-56-53 



Other velvets of the 18th and early igth 
century may be found under accession 
numbers 1962-56-179 A-F and -183. 
623-624 



The Madonna of the Chair, picture in 
velvet after the painting by Raphael, in 
original frame; Gaspard Gregoire. France, 
about 1800. 

625 Acc. NO. 1962-57-1 [S] 

Head of a Young Woman in Profile, pic- 
ture in velvet, original gilt bronze frame; 
Gaspard Gregoire. France, about 1800. 

626 ACC. no. 1962-57-2 

Flowers in a Basket, circular picture in vel- 
vet, black wooden frame; Gaspard Gregoire. 
France, about 1800. 

627 ACC. NO. 1962-57-3 

Other pictures by Gaspard Gregoire 
may be seen under accession numbers 
1962-57-4 and -5. 
628-629 

Velvet pictures in imitation of the 
process of Gregoire may be seen under 
accession numbers ig62-57-6 and -7. 
630-631 

Portrait, Louise Auguste Wilhelmine 
Amelie, Queen of Prussia, 1776-1810, Ve- 
lours chine, by Richard of Lyons, late 18th 
or early 19th century. 
632 Acc. NO. 1962-57-8 

Other velvet pictures in the icarp-print 
or chine process may be found under 
accession numbers iQ62,-$y-i8o, -181 
and -182. 
633-635 



— A.B.B. 
29 




30 



Caps and Coifs 



T 



.HE EMBROIDERED CAPS in this coUection are exceptionally fine examples of 
the renaissance of English embroidery which followed a decHne in the craft after 
the great period of the medieval embroidery, called Opus Anglicanum. Under the 
Tudor Ehzabeth the art of needlework was renewed by the embroideress of the 
newly prosperous merchant class who, supplied with silks and gold thread imported 
from the Levant and the fine steel needles now first made in England, turned to 
manuscripts, herbals and pattern books for designs of flowers, fruits and an infinite 
variety of insects and worms which she loved to employ in her patterns. Such 
caps as these shown were for indoor, informal wear by both men and women. 

The infants' caps of a later century, which show such delicate decoration 
were probably for the special occasion of the child's christening. 



Man's Cap, linen embroidered in poly- 
chrome silks and gold; pattern of rainbows, 
clouds, insects and snails. England, late i6th 
century. 
389 Acc. NO. 1962-56-11 [S] 



Woman's Coif, linen embroidered in poly- 
chrome silks and gold; lattice pattern in green 
and gold framing clusters of flowers, pears, 
peas and grapes with many details in high 
relief in gold. England, late i6th-early 17th 
century. 
390 acc. no. 1962-53-2 [S] 

Woman's Coif, linen embroidered in black 
silk and gold; pattern of tightly scrolling 



branches framing flower and fruit clusters, 
among which birds, butterflies, snails and 
rabbits appear. England, late 16th century. 

391 ACC. no. 1962-53-3 [S] 

Woman's Coif, linen embroidered in poly- 
chrome silks, gold and sequins; pattern of 
scrolling stems terminating in leaves or flow- 
ers, with insects and caterpillars. England, 
late i6th-early 17th century. 

392 Acc. no. 1962-53-4 [S] 

Woman's Coif, linen embroidered in poly- 
chrome silks and gold; pattern of scrolling 
stems framing fruit and flower clusters. Eng- 
land, late i6th-early 17th century. 

393 ACC. NO. 1962-53-5 [S] 



3i 



Woman's Coif, opened out, linen embroi- 
dered in white linen and silver threads, with 
details in Reticello; pattern of small flower 
clusters enframed by lattice. England, late 
i6th-early 17th century. 

394 AGO. NO. 1962-53-6 [S] 

Woman's Coif, opened out, linen with 
decoration of drawn work, needlepoint 
stitches and embroidery in white and gold 
thread and sequins; pattern of tightly 
scrolled branches framing flower heads in 
which appear birds and animals. England, 
late 16th century. 

395 Acc. NO. 1962-53-1 [L] 



Infant's Cap, white silk embroidered in 
gold and sequins, with trimming of gold lace 
and white tulle; pattern of flower sprays. 
France, second half of 18th century. 

396 ACC. NO. 1962-53-10 

Infant's Cap, silk embroidered in poly- 
chrome silk, gold and silver; pattern of flower 
sprays on ground of couched silver, bordered 
in gold. Italy or France, mid- 18th century. 

397 ACC. NO. 1962-53-8 

Other infants' embroidered caps, ac- 
cession numbers 1962-53-7 and -9. 

398-399 — A.B.B. 



CAP AND WIG STANDS 

In the wake of fashion, special auxiHaiy objects emerge which often tell 
theii- own delightful story of changing fancy, inventiveness, and a kind 
of limited but perfect functionalism. As wide armchairs were introduced 
to accommodate hoop skirts, and tea sets were designed in response to 
the fashion of tea drinking, so wig and cap stands were made and delight- 
fully decorated to fill their limited but decidedly useful role as comple- 
ments to contemporary fashions. As so often in the 18th century, tliese 
purely Western objects were made not only in the faienceries of Europe, 
but also, on order, in tlie porcelain factories of China. That some of the 
European pieces should be decorated witli the fashionable chinoiserie 
design of the period is a particularly charming reminder of the lively 
exchange of ideas and products between East and West. 



Three Cap Stands, porcelain, underglaze 
blue and iron red; decoration of dragons and 
flowers. China, for the European market, 
mid-i8th century. 

400-402 ACC. NO. I962-60-I AND -3A, B 



Cap Stand, faience with underglaze blue 
and manganese; cartouche framing cows, 
cowherd and houses, bouquet on reverse. 
France, Marseille, factory of Leroy, mid- 
18th century. 



ACC. NO. ic 



Four Cap Stands, faience with underglaze 
blue and manganese; design of chinoiserie 
and pastoral scenes. France, Nevers, mid- 
18th century. 

403-406 ACC. NO. 1962-60-2, -4, -5, -6 



32 



Cap Stand, faience with underglaze blue 
and manganese and overglaze iron brown; 
figure in landscape. France, St. Jean-du- 
Desert, mid-i8th century. 



ACC NO. 1962-60-8 
— H.B. 



A 



.N UNUSUAL COLLECTION of white 

linen tassels from the late i6th through 
the 17th century wiU be seen through- 
out the exhibition. Many were used as 
trimming for, and to weight, the comers 
of lace table and altar covers. Smaller, 
more delicate tassels hung from tie 
cords of lace collars. 

The construction of these tassels is 
intricate and beautiful. Many employ 



Various 



lace stitches as well as knotting. In one 
large tassel a double-headed eagle 
forms the skirt; in several appear little 
figures of people, many with the addi- 
tion of gold thread. 

Such collections are rare and are 
valuable examples of skills of the hand 
used for the creation of the elaborate 
ornament of the period. 

636-679 ACC. NO. 1962-51-1 THROUGH -44 [S] 



Pair of Knives in Case. Knives — silver 
handles engraved with iigures of Ceres, 
Bacchus, Venus and Hermes and scenes 
from the story of Susanna and the Elders; 
on sides the name Johanna Bouwens, 1618. 
Probably wedding knives. Netherlands, 17th 
century. Case — dark red velvet embroidered 
in gold; pattern of symmetrical vine; silk and 
gold cord and tassels. France or Italy, early 
17th century. 
G8O-68I ACC. NO. 1962-58-11 [JJR] 

Rectangular Box, probably a missal case; 
red velvet, embroidered in gold in high re- 
Hef, strap-word pattern with stylized floral 
motifs, one side hinged and fastened with 
small silver hooks; silver eyelets on ends for 
cord handles. Spain or Italy, first half of 17th 
century. 

682 AGO. NO. 1962-58-13 [JJR] 

Girdle with Elaborate Tassels; band of 
silk and metal with stylized velvet pattern 
in green and red; tassels of silk and metal 
have attached dependent figures of people, 
animals, birds. Spain, first quarter of 18th 
century. 

683 ACG. no. 1962-58-9 [JJR] 

White Silk Cord with Gold Tassel; fur- 
nished with loop to carry a sword. France, 
first half of 18th century. 

684 ACC. NO. 1962-58-10 A and b [JJR] 



Pair of Double-Headed Crowned Eagles, 
attached to white silk embroidered bands; 
eagles worked in the round on gold thread, 
and looped silver wire; tipped with silk 
tassels; band embroidered in gold vine and 
flower design, with brilliants. Spain, late 17th 
century. 

685 Acc. NO. 1962-58-8 a and b [S] 

Small Rectangular Cushion, red vel- 
vet, embroidered in gold, silver and se- 
quins; crown with conventionalized foliage; 
trimmed at corners with tassels of red silk 
and gold; Spain or France, 17th century. 

686 AGG. NO. 1962-58-6 

Similar embroidered accessories under 
accession numbers 1962-58-7, -12, and 
-14. 

687-889 

Small Pocket Book, of dark brown horse 
hair, with woven design in silver, gold, and 
touches of green sOk; hunter on horseback, 
trees, animals. France mid-i7th century. 
690 AGO. NO. 1962-55-7 

Pocket Book, of dark brown horse hair, 
with woven design in gold, silver, and col- 
ored silks; face and reverse, design of the 



33 



fable of the fox and the stork, on the flap, 

the crow and the fox. France, 1650 to 1680. 

691 Acc. NO. 1962-55-9 

Similar pocket books of the 17th to 
early 18th century may be seen under 
accession numbers 1962-55-5, -6, -8, 
-10, -II and -13; 1962-56-24 A and B, 
and -25 A and B. 
692-701 

Small Purse, shield-shaped, embroidered 
in polychrome silks and gold; on one side, 
scene of lady and two gentlemen picking 
fruit; on reverse, a landscape with coach and 
horses, borders embroidered in gold thread 
and flat gold. Germany, mid-i8th century. 

702 ACC. NO. 1962-55-1 [S] 

Small Pubse, shield-shaped, embroidered 
in polychrome silks and metal thread; on one 
side, a lady in Turkish costume, against 
couched silver ground; on reverse, basket 
of flowers, with wide borders worked in gold 
thread. Germany, mid-i8th century. 

703 ACQ. NO. 1962-55-2 [S] 

Small Purse, shield-shaped, embroidered 
in polychrome silks and metal threads; on 
one side, against a couched silver ground, 
shepherdess with a sheep; on reverse, shep- 
herd with dog, borders embroidered in gold 
and spangles, with details in reHef. Germany, 
mid-i8th century. 

704 AGO. NO. 1962-55-3 [S] 

Side for a Bag, taffeta worked in poly- 
chrome silk with painted details; lady with 
children, floral border. France, late 18th 



century. 

705 



ACC. NO. 1962-52-13 



Similar embroideries for bags may be 
found under accession numbers 1962- 
52-12, -14, and -15 and 1962-55-12. 
706-709 

Four Small Panels of Painted Silk, de- 
tails for a pocket book; patterns of emblems, 
miniature figures and flower wreaths in the 
style of Pierre Ranson (1736-1786). France, 
about 1780. 

710 ACC. NO. 1962-56-26 A-D 

Fan, unmounted, cream colored satin, plate- 
printed in blue; center, a medallion of oak 



34 



leaves framing portrait of Napoleon, flanked 
by figures of Abundance and Victory; to 
right and left, round medallions with figures 
representing War and Peace, in classic style. 
Designed by Chaudet, Percier and Fontaine, 
engraved by Jean Godefroy in 1797. 

711 ACC NO. 1962-58-4 

Cardinal's Gloves, red silk tricot, embroi- 
dered in gold; on back, rayed IHS; on cuffs, 
vine design of leaves, grapes and wheat. 
Italv, early 18th century. 

712 ACC NO. 1962-55-19 

Red Silk Stockings, with embroidered 
clocks; pattern of potted trees in light col- 
ored silks. France, late i8th-early 19th 
century. 

713 ACC NO. 1962-55-16 A AND B [HL] 

Other silk stockings of the same period 
may be seen under accession numbers 
1962-55-14, -15, -17 and -18. 
714-717 

Braids for Coach or Livery Trimmings, 
woven in polychrome silk velvet, cut and 
uncut; arms of family or owner. 

718 ACC NO. 1962-56-34 A TO E 

Similar braids will be found under ac- 
cession numbers 1962-56-35 A to H. 
Other trimmings and various acces- 
sories will be found under accession 
numbers 1962-52-31 A-1, 1962-58-5, 
and 1962-58-15 and -16. 

719-723 

Cut Paperwork, with watercolors; The 
Miraculous Virgin of Einsiedeln. Switzer- 
land, mid- 18th century. 

724 ACC NO. 1962-59-43 

Design for the Corner of an Embroi- 
dered Waistcoat, watercolor drawing on 
paper. France, about 1780. 

725 ACC NO. 1962-59-1 

Design for the Pocket of an Embroi- 
dered Waistcoat, watercolor drawing on 
paper. France, about 1780. 

726 ACC NO. 1962-59-2 

Another similar textile design, French, 
about 1780, will be found under acces- 
sion number 1962-59-3. 

727 — A.B.B. 

— R.P.W. 



Lace Glossary 



Armure 

Occurs sometimes as a fond (ground) and 
sometimes as a mode (filling) in bobbin 
lace (MechUn). 

Bride [Tie-bar] 

A connection between parts of the pattern. 
Occurs in both needle and bobbin lace. 

Bride Bouclee 

Hexagonal reseau (mesh) of buttonhole 
stitch, with picotee (pearl). Occurs in 
needle lace. 

Bride Picotee 

Hexagonal reseau (mesh) of buttonhole 
stitch, with picotee (pearl) in center of 
each bride (tie-bar). Occurs in both needle 
and bobbin lace. 

Bride Tortilee 

Hexagonal reseau ( mesh ) of twisted thread. 
Occurs in needle lace. 

Cordonnet [Cord] 

Cord or thick thread, often raised by button- 
hole stitches, with which the pattern is out- 
lined. Occurs in both needle and bobbin 
lace. 

Droschel [Mesh or Net] 

Synonym of reseau (mesh), used only in 
describing the reseau (mesh) in bobbin 
lace (Brussels and Point d'Angleterre ) . 



Enchainette [Small Ring or Individual Member 
of Chain] 

Occurs as a mode (filling) in needle lace. 

Fleurs Volantes [Flying Flowers] 

Occurs as a surface decoration in needle 
lace (Point de Venise and Rosaline). 

Fond [Ground] 

General term for ground in both needle and 
bobbin lace. 

Fond a la Mariage [Honeycomb Shape] 

Occurs sometimes as a fond (ground) and 
sometimes as a mode (filling) in bobbin 
lace. 

Fond a la Vierge [Five-Hole Ground] 

Also known as Maille a Cinq Trous, this 
fond (ground) composed of five holes, two 
above, two below and one in the middle 
forming a square. Occurs sometimes as a 
fond (ground) and sometimes as a mode 
(filling) in bobbin lace. 

Fond Chant [Star-Shaped Ground] 

Also known as Point de Paris. Occurs some- 
times as a fond ( ground ) and sometimes as 
a mode (filling) in bobbin lace. 

Fond de Neige [Snowflake Ground] 

Also known as Oeil de Perdrix. Occurs 
sometimes as a fond (ground) and some- 
times as a mode (filling) in both needle 
and bobbin lace. 



35 



Fond Simple [Ground of Twisted Thread] 

Occurs sometimes as a fond (ground) and 
sometimes as a mode (filling) in bobbin 
lace. 

Gaze Quadrillee [Lozenge-Shaped Stitch] 

Occurs in the toile (solid part of the pat- 
tern ) in needle lace. 

Jour [Opening] 

Also known as Porte. Occurs in the toile 
(solid part of the pattern) in both needle 
and bobbin lace. 

Maille Carree [Square Mesh or Net] 

Occurs as a fond (ground) and sometimes 
as a mode (filling) in bobbin lace (Milanese 
and Valenciennes ) . 

Maille a Cinq Trous [Five-Hole Ground] 

Also known as Fond a la Vierge. Occurs 
sometimes as a fond ( ground ) and some- 
times as a mode (filling) in bobbin lace. 

Mode [Filling] 

Occurs as an ornamental device replacing 
in certain spaces or areas the fond ( ground) 
and the reseau (mesh) in both needle and 
bobbin lace. 

Mosaique [Small Blossom] 

Motif contained within diamond-shaped 
unit, with picotees (pearls) along its outer 
frame. Occurs as a mode ( filling ) in needle 
lace. 

Oeil de Perdrix [Partridge Eye] 

Also known as Fond de Neige. Occurs 
sometimes as a fond (ground) and some- 
times as a mode (filling) in both needle 
and bobbin lace. 

Petit Reseau [Little Mesh or Net] 

Same as reseau ( mesh ) and reseau ordinaire 
(plain mesh) but smaller in scale. Occurs 
in both needle and bobbin lace. 

Picotee [Pearl, Loop] 

Used to ornament the bride (tie-bar), the 
cordonnet (cord) and the reseau (mesh). 
Occurs in both needle and bobbin lace. 

Point, Punto [Stitch] 

Term stands for needle stitch. Often mis- 
used with Point d'Angleterre and Point de 
Paris, which are bobbin laces. 



Point de . . . [Needle-Stitch Lace Made In ... ] 
In its true meaning this term introduces a 
needle-stitch lace made in a particular coun- 
try or section; it is a geographic reference. 

Point de Paris [Six-Pointed Star Ground] 

Also known as Fond Chant. Occurs some- 
times as a fond ( ground ) and sometimes as 
a mode (filling) in bobbin lace. 

Point Mignon [Oval-Shaped Stitch] 

Occurs as a mode (filling) in needle lace. 

Porte [Opening] 

Also known as Jour. Occurs in the toile 
(solid part of the pattern) in both needle 
and bobbin lace. 

Reseau [Mesh or Net] 

Occurs in both needle and bobbin lace. 

Reseau Mouche [Spotted Mesh or Net] 

Occurs sometimes as a fond (ground) and 
sometimes as a mode (filling) in both 
needle and bobbin lace. 

Reseau Ordinaire [Plain Mesh or Net] 

Occurs in both needle and bobbin lace. 

St. Esprit [Stnall Oval or Square] 

Occurs as a mode (filling) in both needle 
and bobbin lace. 

St. Esprit Avec Rangs Clairs [Eight-Pointed Star 
Contained Within Circle] 

Occurs as a mode (filling) in needle lace. 

Seme de Larmes [Sown With Tears] 

Refers to dots and leaves powdered over 
the reseau ( ground ) . Occurs in both needle 
and bobbin lace. 

Toile [Solid Part of Pattern] 

Occurs in both needle and bobbin lace. 

Vrai Droschel [Handmade Mesh or Net] 

Occurs in bobbin lace (Brussels and Point 
d'Angleterre ) . 

Vrai Reseau [Handmade Mesh or Net] 
Occurs in needle lace. 

Venise [Zig-Zag Running Tie-Bar] 

With picotees (pearls). Occurs as a mode 
filling) in both needle and bobbin lace. 



36 



Works Consulted 



Frauberger, Tina. Handbuch der Spitzenkunde. 
Leipzig, Verlag von E. A. Seemann, 1894 

Henneberg, Alfred Freiherr Von. The art 
and craft of old lace. New York, E. Weyhe, 
1931 

Lefebure, Auguste. Dentelles et guipures. Paris, 
Edouard Rou\'eyre, Editeur, 1904 

Morris, Frances and Hague, Marian. Aiitique 
laces of the American collectors. New York, 
published for The Needle and Bobbin Club 
by William Helburn, Inc., 1926, Vol. I-IV 

P.^lliser, Bury. History of lace. London, Samp- 
son Low, Son, & Marston, 1865 

PowYS, Marian. Lace and lace-making. Boston, 
Charles T. Branford Company, 1953 

Ricci, Elisa. Old Italian lace. London, William 
Heinemann, 1913, Vol. I and II 

Schuette, Marie. Alte Spitzen. Berlin, Richard 
Carl Schmidt & Company, 1914 

Whiting, Gertrude. A lace guide for makers 
and collectors. New York, Dutton, 1920 

Van Overloop, E. Dentelles anciennes des 
musees royaux des arts decoratifs et indus- 
triels a Bruxelles. Librairie Nationale d'art 
et d'Histoire, G. Van Oest & Gie, Editeurs, 
Bruxelles et Paris, 1912 



TEXTILES 

Algoud, Henri. Le velours. Paris, Ch. Massin 
[n. d.] 

Algoud, Henri. Gaspard Gregoire et ses velours 
d'art. Paris, Societe Frangaise d'lmprimerie 
et de Librairie, 1908 

DuPont-Auberville, A. L'ornement des tissus. 
Paris, Ducher, 1877 

Errera, Isabelle. Catalogue d'etoffes anciennes 
et modernes. 3 ed. Bru.\elles, Vromant, 1927 

Errera, Isabelle. Collection d'anciennes etoffes, 
reunies et decrites. Bruxelles, Falk Fils, 



Weibel, Adele Coulin. Two thousand years of 
textiles. New York, Pantheon Books, 1952 



COSTUME 

Davenport, Millia. The book of costume. New 
York, Crown Publishers, 1948, 2 v. 

Cunnington, Cecil Willett and Phyllis. 
Handbook of English costume in the seven- 
teenth century. London, Faber and Faber, 
[1955] 

Cunnington, Cecil Willett and Phillis. 
Handbook of English costume in the eight- 



37 



eenth century. London, Faber and Faber, 
[1957] 

CooPEB Union, New York. Museum. Conspicu- 
ous waist; waistcoats and waistcoat design, 
iyoo-iQ52. New York, 1952 

BoEHN, Max Von. Die Mode, Menschen und 
Moden im achtzehnten Jahrhundert. Miin- 
chen, F. Bruckmann, 1923 

Galerie des modes et costumes frangais, des- 
sines d'apres nature, 1778-IJ87; reimpres- 
sion accompagnee d'une preface par M. 
Paul Cornu. Paris, E. Levy, [1912], 6 v. 

Kelly, Francis Michael and Schwabe, Ran- 
dolph. Historic costume. 2d. ed. New York, 
Scribner's Sons, 1929 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. 17th and 18th century costume. 
Introduction b)' James Laver. London, H. 
M. Stationery Office, 1951 

Saxe, Eleanor. The eighteenth century waist- 
coat. Bulletin of The Needle and Bobbin 
Club, Vol. XL No. 1, p. 3-8, 1927 



EMBROIDERY 

DiGBY, George Wingfield. Elizabethan em- 
broidery. London, Faber and Faber, 1963 

Holme, Geoffrey, ed. A book of old embroi- 
dery, with articles by Louisa F. Pesel, A. F. 



Kendrick and E. W. Newberry. London, 
The Studio, 1921 

Nevinson, John Lea. English embroidered cos- 
tume in the collection of Lord Middleton, 
part II. The Connoisseur, v. 103, p. 136- 
141, March 1939 

Nevinson, John Lea. English embroidered cos- 
tume. Elizabeth and James 1, part 1. The 
Connoisseur, v. 97, p. 23-8, January, 1936 

Snook, Barbara. English historical embroidery. 
London, B. T. Batsford, i960 

Seligman, G. Saville and Hughes, Talbot. 
Domestic needlework. London, Country 
Life, 1926 

TowNSEND, Gertrude. Notes on embroidery in 
England during the Tudor and Stuart Peri- 
ods. Bulletin of The Needle and Bobbin 
Club. Vol. 45, nos. 1 and 2, 1961 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Ken- 
sington. Catalogue of English domestic 
embroidery of the 16th and 17th centuries, 
by John Lea Nevinson. London, Published 
under the authority of the Board of Educa- 
tion, 1938 

Wunder, Richard Paul. Some observations on 
textile designs in the Cooper Union Mu- 
seum. In Chronicle of the Museum for the 
Arts of Decoration of the Cooper Union. 
Vol. 2, No. 8, June 1956 



38 



THE CATALOGUE HAS BEEN PREPARED BY THE MUSEUM STAFF. 

Staff 

Christian Rohlfing, Museum Administrator and Curator, 

Department of Exhibitions 
Richard P. Wunder, Curator of Drawings and Prints 
Alice Baldwin Beer, Curator of Textiles 
Christa C. Mayer, Assistant Curator of Textiles 
MRS. Hedy Backlin, Curator of Decorative Aits 
Edward L. Kallop, Associate Curator, Department of Exhibitions 
Mary A. Noon, Recorder 
MRS. Mary Blackwelder, Catalogue Supervisor 



The staff of the Cooper Union Museum wishes to express gratitude 
for advice and assistance in preparing tlie catalogue to Miss Marian 
Potoys, for her invaluable help on the laces, to Mr. John Nevinson, 
formerly of the Victoria and Albert Museum, for information on 
embroideries and waistcoats, to Miss Millia Davenport, authority 
on costume, and to Mr. Lewis G. Adams, for contributing the 
biography of Richard Cranch Greenleaf included in this catalogue. 














THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE at SEVENTH STREET 
NEW YORK 3, N. Y. 






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